Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

 A talk about Charles Dickens :
Have you heard of Charles Dickens? After Shakespeare he is probably the most famous writer in the English language. He is the best known for his novels about life in the nineteenth – century Britain. Dickens was born in 1812 into a good family in Portsmouth, in the south of England. When he was still a young boy, his father went to prison in 1824, because he had got into debt. Charles went to London to earn money for the family. At age of twelve he was working for ten hours a day in a London factory. He saw how hard life was for poor people and many of the ideas for the stories of his novels and the characters in them came from this time.
After he left the factory. Dickens went to work as an office clerk, but he did not enjoy this. In 1834 he started work as a newspaper journalist. While he was working for the newspaper, he was also writing magazine stories about life in London. Instead of using his real name he called himself Boz for these stories. In 1836 Dickens married Catherine Hogarth. He went on to write Oliver Twist in 1838 and Nicholas Nickleby in 1839. David Copperfield followed in 1850. In 1858 Dickens went to America to read his novels to people.
A tale of two cities in 1859, and Great Expectations in 1861. In Oliver Twist Dickens show the dark side of life in the nineteenth – century London. He describes the lives of child workers and life in the workhouse, where very poor people were sent to live and work. Dickens died in 1870. When he died, Dickens was 58 years.

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

 A talk about Charles Dickens :
Have you heard of Charles Dickens? After Shakespeare he is probably the most famous writer in the English language. He is the best known for his novels about life in the nineteenth – century Britain. Dickens was born in 1812 into a good family in Portsmouth, in the south of England. When he was still a young boy, his father went to prison in 1824, because he had got into debt. Charles went to London to earn money for the family. At age of twelve he was working for ten hours a day in a London factory. He saw how hard life was for poor people and many of the ideas for the stories of his novels and the characters in them came from this time.
After he left the factory. Dickens went to work as an office clerk, but he did not enjoy this. In 1834 he started work as a newspaper journalist. While he was working for the newspaper, he was also writing magazine stories about life in London. Instead of using his real name he called himself Boz for these stories. In 1836 Dickens married Catherine Hogarth. He went on to write Oliver Twist in 1838 and Nicholas Nickleby in 1839. David Copperfield followed in 1850. In 1858 Dickens went to America to read his novels to people.
A tale of two cities in 1859, and Great Expectations in 1861. In Oliver Twist Dickens show the dark side of life in the nineteenth – century London. He describes the lives of child workers and life in the workhouse, where very poor people were sent to live and work. Dickens died in 1870. When he died, Dickens was 58 years.

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

UNIT 3

UNIT 3

4- Photographic memory :ذاكرة فوتوغرافية
– Being able to remember something by looking at it.

5- Repeat :يردد – يكرر
– Say again.

6- Analyse (v) :يُحلل
– Examine or think about something carefully to understand it.

7- Breathe (v) :يتنفس
– Take air into your lungs and let it out again.

8- Cell (n) :زنزانة
– A small room in a police station or prison where people are kept.

9- Cell (n) :خلية
– The smallest part of an animal or plant that can exist on its own.

10- Pain (n) :ألم
– The feeling you have when part of your body hurts.

11- Powerful (adj) :قوى
– Having a lot of physical power, strength or force.

12- Temperature (n) :درجة الحرارة
– How hot or cold something is.
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Vocabulary :

Creative Questions

4- Photographic memory :ذاكرة فوتوغرافية
– Being able to remember something by looking at it.

5- Repeat :يردد – يكرر
– Say again.

6- Analyse (v) :يُحلل
– Examine or think about something carefully to understand it.

7- Breathe (v) :يتنفس
– Take air into your lungs and let it out again.

8- Cell (n) :زنزانة
– A small room in a police station or prison where people are kept.

9- Cell (n) :خلية
– The smallest part of an animal or plant that can exist on its own.

10- Pain (n) :ألم
– The feeling you have when part of your body hurts.

11- Powerful (adj) :قوى
– Having a lot of physical power, strength or force.

12- Temperature (n) :درجة الحرارة
– How hot or cold something is.
———————————————————————–
Vocabulary :

Creative Questions

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

U4

UNI T 4

 Pate :
My name’s Pate. I’m British but I’ve lived in Australia since 1998. I live with my wife, Chris, and our two children. Nathan and Katy. I teach biology at Perth University. My wife teaches English. Nathan is in his last year at school, and our daughter, Katy, is at university studying medicine. She’s been for two years, so she will finish in three years. We’re a very sporty family. I play squash five times a week, and we all like sailing. In our free time, Chris and I work for a children’s charity. We take children with disabilities on trips at the weekends.
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 Rana :
I’m Rana, I’m from Cairo and I’m studying Chinese at the university here. I’ve just finished first year. My brother, Mohamed, is also at university here. He’s doing architecture. When he is older, he would like to design a government building in Cairo. We have two sisters Heba and Nema, who are both at third year at secondary school. After I graduate, I want to work as an interpreter. If didn’t do that, I’d like to work in television. Perhaps on a news programme. I ‘m very busy at the moment, but when I have some free time, I will spend it at home with my family.
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 Stefan :
I’m Stefan. I’m sixteen, I ‘m Italian and I’m a student. I live with my family in a small town in Italy. My father’s Italian, and he was born in Australia and lived there for the first 18 years of his life. He’s a geography teacher at a school in Florence. He’s worked there for over twenty years. My mother’s Swedish. She is the manager of a hotel in our town. I have two older sisters, Anna and Clara. Everyone in our family speaks English, Swedish and Italian. We visit our Swedish grandparents every two years, but our Italian grandparents live with us. They’re very old, so we all have to help them. I read the newspaper to my grandfather every day.
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 Lili :
My name is Lili. I ‘m fifteen years old and I live in the capital of China, Beijing. I’m at school, so I still live with my parents in an apartment in

Beijing. I don’t have any brothers or sisters. There are many small families in China. My father is a doctor and my mother doesn’t work. My first language Mandarin, which is the most common language in the world, with nearly a billion speakers. I really love sports. Table tennis is my favourite game, but I also play basketball. I’ve never travelled outside China, but I have seen a giant panda in the mountains.
————————————————————————-
The world’s best swimmer
 Abu-Heif was one of the best Egyptian athletes ever. In 2001, he won a prize as the best swimmer of the 20th century.

 Abdel-Latif Abu-Heif was born in 1929 in the Anfoushi area of Alexandria. His father was a primary school teacher and Abu-Heif was the tenth of twelve sons in the family. As a boy, he spent a lot of his time swimming in the sea. At the age of ten, he won the Egyptian primary school swimming championship. After this, he moved to Cairo and trained at Al-Ahli Club.

 In 1951, Abu-Heif became internationally famous when he swam across the English Channel. In 1953, he crossed the Channel again. This time he broke the record by crossing in 13 hours and 45 minutes. When he returned to Egypt, the people welcomed him as a national hero.

 Abu-Heif continued to train for seven hours a day and to swim in long-distance races all over the world. In 1963, in Toronto, he beat Harry William, one of the greatest swimmers in the world. In the same year, he won the Montreal swimming race after he swam for 30 hours without a break. All the other swimmers had given up because they were exhausted. Egypt was so proud of its world famous swimmer that they gave his name to a beach at al-Anfoushi. In 1966, Abu-Heif decided to retire from swimming. However, President Nasser asked him to think again. So Abu-Heif continued to swim and win prizes until 1975, when he finally retired at the age of 46.

 Abu-Heif was also famous for his generosity. He gave his prize money for swimming the English Channel to the family of a British swimmer who had drowned while he was crossing the Channel.

 In 2006, Abo-Heif went into hospital because he had a weak heart. In the past, kings; and other important people wanted to meet him. Before he died, he had few visitors. Many younger people do not even know his name. Abu-Heif died in April 2008.
————————————————————————-
“Crocodile of the Nile”
breaks record crossing Channel
 Yesterday, Abdel-Lalif Abu-Heif, 22, from Alexandria in Egypt, broke the world record for swimming across the English Channel; Abu-Heif swam the 32 kilometers between England and France in 13 hours and 45 minutes. This is the narrowest part of English Channel
The first person who swam across the Channel was Matthew Webb in 1875 crossing took 21 hours and 45
————————————————————————-
 Definitions
1- beat يهزم
To be more successful than other people in a game or a competition, etc
2- break a record رقم قياسى يحطم
To do something better or faster than it has ever been done before.
3- exhausted متعب
Extremely tired
4- generosity كرم
When you are happy to give money, time, etc to help someone, or something you do that shows this.
5- hero بطل
Someone who is admired for doing something very brave or good.
6- proud فخور
Feeling pleased with your achievement, possessions, family etc, because you think they are very good.
7- athlete رياضى
Someone who is good at sports
8- Charity : جمعية خيرية
is an organization for helping people in need.

Vocabulary :

What is the difference between … ?
* journey :رحلة طويلة * voyage :رحلة بحرية
* trip :رحلة قصيرة ( للمتعة أو للعمل ) * flight :رحلة جوية
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* present :هدية * reward :مكافأة مالية * prize :جائزة
——————————————————-
* interpreter :مترجم فورى ( شفهى ) * translator :مترجم نصوص
——————————————————-
* flat ( British English ) :شقة * apartment ( American English ) :شقة
——————————————————-
* drown (v) :يغرق شخص * sink (v) :يغطس أشياء
——————————————————-

* charity (n) :مؤسسة خيرية * orphanage :دار أيتام
* workhouse (n) :إصلاحية للأحداث
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* ( has / have ) been to :ذهب إلى مكان وعاد
* ( has / have ) gone to :ذهب إلى مكام ولم يعد
——————————————————-
* hero :بطل ( فى أسطورة – حرب – عمل أدبى ) * champion :بطل رياضى
——————————————————-
* retire (v) :يتقاعد – يحال إلى المعاش * resign (v) :يستقيل
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* quality (n) :جودة – صفة * characteristics (n) :ميزة ( صفة مميزة )
——————————————————-
* think of :يفكر فى ( شخص ) * think about :يفكر فى شئ
——————————————————-
* inability :عدم القدرة على فعل شئ * disability :إعاقة جسدية
——————————————————-
* disabled (adj) :ذو إعاقة جسدية * retarded (adj) :ذو إعاقة عقلية
* backward (adj) :متخلف عن النمو العقلى
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* mountain (n) :جبل * hill (n) :تل
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* beach :بلاج * shore :شاطئ * bank :ضفة النهر
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* agreeable :مقبول * disagreeable :كريه
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Note The Following

Creative Questions
1- Would you like to be a hero like Abu Heif ? Why ?
—-» Yes, to make my country proud of me and set an example to the young.
2- What can we do to make sure that people don’t forget heroes from the past ?
—-» We can show programmes on TV to remind people of past heroes. Their names should be given to streets and other public places. There should be newspaper articles, TV serials and books that tell us about them and their achievements.
3- How can we have heroes like Abu Heif ?
—-» We can find strong young people, provide them with health care and good training for international championships.
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Grammar
The Present Perfect Tense
زمن المضارع التام

* يتكون من : ( has / have ) + p.p
* الكلمات الدالة :
since & for & just & already & already & ever & never
& lately & recently & up till now & so far & ever since
* لاحظ التالى :
* تأتى ( just / already ) بين . ( has / have ) & ( p.p )
Exs:
– I’ve just finished my homework.
– I’ve already finished my homework.
* تستخدم) ( never فى النفى .
Ex:
– I’ve never been to Europe.
* تستخدم ( yet ) فى نهاية الجملة المنفية والاستفهامية .
Exs:
– I haven’t finished my homework yet.
– Has she phoned yet?
* تستخدم ( ever ) عند سؤال شخص ما عن تجاربه الشخصية .
Ex:
– Have you ever been to Italy?
* تستخدم ( recently ) فى نهاية الجملة المثبتة .
Ex:
– I’ve seen him recently.
* تستخدم ( lately ) فى نهاية الجملة المنفية أو الاستفهامية .
Ex:
– Have you seen him lately ?
– I haven’t seen him lately .

12 O’clock Two hours
October Four months
7th August Three weeks
Since 2000 For 8 years
He arrived Ages
then A long time
Last ……………… The last …………..
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Note The Following
1)) عند استخدام ( since ) بدلا من) ( for والعكس نطرح من الفترة الحالية .
Exs:
* I have worked in teaching since 1998. ( for )
—-» I have worked in teaching for 10 years.
* I have lived in Tanta for 8 years. ( since )
—-» I have lived in Tanta since 2000.
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2)) اذا جاء بعد forمدة غير محددة وطلب وضع since.
It’s + المدة الزمنية + since + فاعل + ( ماضى بسيط )
Exs:
* I haven’t eaten shrimps for along time. ( since )
—-» It’s along time since I ate shrimps.
* I haven’t visited Aswan for ages. ( since )
—-» It’s ages since I visited Aswan.
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3)) اذا جاء ( last ………… when ) وطلب منك وضع ( since ) احذف ( last )
واستخدم المضارع التام المنفى واحذف ( ( when وضع ( since ) مكانها.
Ex:
* I last ate shrimps when I was in Alex . ( since )
—-»*I haven’t eaten shrimps since I was in Alex .
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نستخدم : ( since & for ) بدلا من (ago) ) عند استخدام4)
فاعل + ( began to / started to ) +المصدر+ …….المدة+ + ago
Ex:
* He has worked in Italy since 2000 . ( ago )
—-» He began to work in Italy eight years ago .
* She has lived in Alex for 5 years. ( ago )
—-» She started to live in Alex 5 years ago.

(5) اذا جاءت ( ago ) و طلب وضع) ( just حول الجملة الى المضارع التام
واحذف المدة التى تسبقago .
Ex:
* He came a moment ago . ( just )
—-» He has just come .
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6)) اذا جاءت ( just) و طلب وضع ( ago) … حول الجملة الى ماضى بسيط
و استخدم ( short time a go / a moment ago )
Ex:
* He has just finished his work . ( ago )
—-» He finished his work a moment ago .
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7)) اذا كانت الجملة فى المضارع التام المنفى بـ (not / never) وتنتهى بـ (before) … نستخدم :
It’s the first time + الفاعل + ( have /has) +ever +p.p
Ex:
* I have not eaten shrimps before . ( ever )
—-» It’s the first time I have ever eaten shrimps .
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8)) اذا كانت الجملة فى المضارع التام المنفى بـnever / not ) ( وتنتهى بصفة(عادية / مقارنة) نستخدم :
Exs:
* I have never seen a man better than Ramy. ( ever )
—-» Ramy is the best man I have ever seen.
* No man of those I have seen is better than Ramy. ( ever )
—-» Ramy is the best man I have ever seen.
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The Present Perfect in Passive
المضارع التام فى المبنى للمجهول
* يتكون من :
(المفعول به) + ( has / have ) + been + (p.p) +….+ by +( الفاعل)
Ex:
* They have built the house. ( The house )
—-» The house has been built.
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Pele scores in the world cup final !
(against – beat – from – goal – old –youngest )
Pele 17………….. Tres Coracoes in Brazil, scored two goals for Brazil in their match ………. Sweden in yesterday’s World Cup final. Brazil ………… Sweden 5-2. He scored his first international …………… when Brazil lost against Argentina in July 1957. He did not score in his first World Cup match, but when he scored a goal against Wales, he became the ………… player to score a World Cup goal. He was 17 years and 239 days ……… .

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

U5

UNI T 5

 A programme about Ernest Hemingway :
Presenter : Good afternoon. Today, we’re looking at the life of that very talented American writer, Ernest Hemingway. Our guest in the studio is someone who has spent many years studying Hemingway and is extremely knowledgeable on the subject. She’s Mary” Mary Drew. Mary, can you start by telling us something about Hemingway’s early life? What sort of a family did he come from?
Mary Drew :Well, Hemingway had quite an ordinary childhood. He was born in Chicago in 1899, and was the second of six children. His father was a doctor and his mother was a music teacher.
Presenter :Was it a happy childhood?
Mary Drew :Yes, it was. He really loved the outdoor life and spent a lot of time walking, camping, and fishing.
Presenter :And when did he start to write?
Mary Drew :At about the age of 16, he started writing poems and short stories for his school magazine. He usually wrote about his own life.
Presenter :What about after school?
Mary Drew :Well, he left school at 18 and went to Italy to join the Red Cross. It was during the First World War and Hemingway drove an ambulance. He was badly wounded there – the first American to be wounded in the war.
Presenter :And after the war?
Mary Drew :He returned to America and married Hadley Richardson. In 1922 he and his wife went back to Europe, this time to Paris. Hemingway worked as a journalist, reporting news stories of all kinds. He met many famous writers in Paris, and soon afterwards decided to give up journalism and write fiction.
Presenter :What was his first big novel?
Mary Drew :A Farewell to arms , which he wrote in 1929. It was a story of love in wartime Italy.
Presenter :What about For Whom the Bell Tolls?
Mary Drew :He wrote that in 1940. This was a novel about the war in Spain. After that, he didn’t write fiction for a few years because he became journalist and reported on the Second World War. His

next well known book was The Old man and the Sea, which was shorter than his other novels. Many people think this is his most successful book.
Presenter : He won the Nobel Prize for Literature, didn’t he?
Mary Drew :Yes, that was in 1 953, but by then he had stopped writing
fiction. For the rest of his life, he suffered from illness and he died in 1961
Presenter : A very full and exciting life. Thank you very much, Mary Drew. In our next programme, we will be hearing about the British writer George Orwell.
———————————————————————————
The Old Man and the Sea
 An old fisherman, Santiago, and his young apprentice, Manolin, had not caught a fish for nearly three months. Manolin had been told by his parents to work with more successful fisherman But Manolin liked the old man and visited him every evening to talk to him.
 After 84 days with no fish, Santiago was sure he would catch something if he sailed a long way to the sea. So, on the 85th day, the old man set off alone. By 12 o’clock on the first day, a big fish – marlin – had taken Santiago’s boat. But because the old man was not strong enough to pull it to the boat, the marlin pulled the boat along. This continued for two days and nights. The old man was in great pain because he had the fishing line round his body.
 On the third day, the marlin was so tired that old managed to pull it to the side of the boat and kill it, He started to sail home, pulling the fish in the water behind the boat. He thought about how much money people would pay for the huge fish but then sharks attacked the boat and tried to eat the marlin. The old man killed seven sharks, “but during the night more sharks came and ate the marlin. Only its skeleton remained.
 When he got back home, it was very early morning. The old man was completely exhausted and went to bed. The other fisherman found
Santiago’s boat with the fish skeleton. Manolin was worried about Santiago but was glad to find him sleeping at home. He brought him coffee and newspapers, and the two men promised they would go fishing together again one day.

Egyptian climbs Mount Everest!
 On May 17th, 2007 Omar Samra became the first Egyptian to climb the highest mountain in the world. According to Samra. “the desire and pride of raising the Egyptian flag on the highest points on earth’ pushed him to climb Mountain Everest.
80 days on a lifeboat
In March 1992, Scott Freeman left England on a small boat he had built himself. Seven days later, he sailed into a storm and his boat sank. Freeman was now in the sea on a 1.5 meter lifeboat. He had only 2 kilos of food and four liters of water but he succeeded in living for 80 days.
During his weeks at sea. Freeman travelled 3ooo kilometers. Although he caught fish, he lost weight and nearly died of hunger. He was also badly burned by the sun, and his lifeboat was attacked by sharks.
Large boats passed without seeing him. Freeman managed to stay alive until he was finally rescued.
——————————————————————————-
 Definitions
1- apprentice :صبى تحت التمرين فى صنعة أو حرفة
– someone who works for an employer for an agreed amount of time in order to learn a skill.
2- bait : طعم لصيد الأسماك
– food used to attract fish so that you can catch them.
3- continue :يستمر – يواصل
– keep doing something without stopping.
4- Fishing line : خيط الصنارة
– strong string for catching fish, attached to a fishing rod.
5- Skeleton : هيكل عظمى
– structure consisting of all the bones in a human or animal body.
6- the Red Cross : الصليب الأحمر
– An international organization for taking care of the wounded or saving the victims of floods and fires …. etc.
——————————————————————————-

Vocabulary :

* imaginary :خيالى ( غير واقعى ) * imaginative : خيالى ( أشخاص واسعى الخيال )
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* wounded (adj) :مجروح ( فى حرب أو معركة ) * injured (adj) :مجروح ( فى حادث )
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* reason (n) :سبب معنوى * cause (n) :سبب مادى
————————————————-
* ( raise (v) – d – d ) + ( مفعول به ) :يرفع ( شئ )
* ( rise (v) – rose – risen ) :ينهض – يستيقظ ( لا يأتى بعدها مفعول به )
* ( arouse (v) – aroused – aroused ) + ( مفعول به ) :يثير
* ( arise (v) – arose – arisen ) :ينشأ – يستيقظ ( لا يأتى بعدها مفعول به )
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Prepositions

Note The Following
* عند التساوى فى الصفات …. نستخدم :
( as + الصفة + as ) OR ( so + الصفة + as )
Exs:
– Ghada is so tall as Marwa.
– Tamer is as clever as Hazem.
————————————————————————
* عند التحويل من ( تفضيل ) إلى ( صفة ) :
No + ( الإسم الموجود بعد صيغة التفضيل ) + ( باقى الجملة ) +
( v. to be ) + ( as / so ) + ( الصفة ) + as + ( الفاعل )
Ex:
* Ali is the tallest boy in the class. ( tall )
—-» No boy in the class is as tall as Ali.
————————————————————————
* عند التحويل من ( تفضيل ) إلى ( مقارنة ) :
No + ( الإسم الموجود بعد صيغة التفضيل ) + ( باقى الجملة ) +
( v. to be ) + ( صيغة المقارنة ) + than + ( الفاعل )
Ex:
* Ali is the tallest boy in the class. ( taller )
—-» No boy in the class is taller than Ali.
————————————————————————
* عند التحويل من ( مقارنة ) إلى ( صفة ) :
1- نعكس طرفى المقارنة .
2- نضع :
( v. to be ) + not + ( as / so ) + ( الصفة ) + as
Ex:
* Ali is taller than Nadia. ( tall )
—-» Nadia isn’t as tall as Ali.
لاحظ
* إذا كانت الصفة الموجودة بين الأقواس عكس الموجودة فى الجملة … لا نعكس طرفى المقارنة .
Ex:
* Ali is taller than Nadia. ( short )
—-» Ali isn’t as short as Nadia.
————————————————————————

* عند التحويل من ( ( ever إلى ( never ) والعكس نتبع الآتى :

( الفاعل ) + ( has / have ) + never + ( p.p ) + such +
( a / an ) + ( الصفة ) + ( الموصوف )

( الفاعل ) + ( has / have ) + never + ( p.p ) +
( a / an ) + ( صيغة المقارنة ) + than + this

This + ( الموصوف ) + ( v. to be ) + ( صيغة التفضيل ) +
one + ( الفاعل ) + ( has / have ) + ever + ( p.p )

It’s + ( صيغة التفضيل ) + الموصوف ) ) + ( الفاعل )
+ ( has / have ) + ever + ( p.p )

Exs:
* I have never seen such an interesting film. ( ever )
—-» This film is the most interesting one I have ever seen.
—-» It’s the most interesting film I have ever seen.
————————————————————————
* It’s the most beautiful girl I have ever met. ( never )
—-» I have never met such a beautiful girl.
————————————————————————
Questions & Answers
1- What did Santiago do ?
—-» He was a fisherman.
2- Who was his apprentice ?
—-» Manolin.
3- How long had they not caught a fish ?
—-» For nearly three months.
4- What did Manolin’s parents tell him ?
—-» They told him to work with a more successful fisherman.
5- Why didn’t Manolin do as his parents told him ?
—-» Because he liked the old fisherman, Santiago.
6- What did Manolin do instead ?
—-» He visited the old man every evening to talk to him.
7- What did Santiago think he would do after 84 days with no fish ?
—-» He thought he would catch something if he sailed a long way out to sea.

8- When did the old man set off ? Who was with him ?
—-» The old man set off on the 85th day. He was alone.
9- What kind of fish took Santiago’s bait ?
—-» A big fish, a marlin.
10- Why couldn’t Santiago pull the fish to the boat ?
—-» Because the fish was big and he wasn’t strong enough to pull it to the boat.
11- What did the marlin do ?
—-» It pulled the boat along.
12- Why was the old man in great pain ?
—-» Because he had the fishing line around his body.
13- What did Santiago do after he killed the fish ?
—-» He started to sail back home pulling the fish in the water behind the boat.
14- What attacked the boat ? Why ?
—-» Sharks attacked the boat to eat the marlin.
15- How many sharks did Santiago kill ?
—-» He killed 7 sharks.
16- Why didn’t Santiago cut the fishing line ?
—-» He was determined that the fish wouldn’t escape.
17- What does the story tell us ?
—-» Santiago had great stamina. He didn’t want nature to beat him.
18- Why do you think Santiago went fishing alone ?
—-»To prove that he was still capable despite his old age.
19- How do you feel about the old man at the end of the story ?
—-» I respect his willingness and determination.
20- Why do you think the young apprentice Manolin liked the old man so much ? What did he learn from him ?
—-» Manolin saw him as a great role model. He learned never to give up.
————————————————————————

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

U6

UNI T 6

 Five people discussing a future event :

1- Abd El-Aziz : Next month I’m going to buy a new car – a really modern one with a computer that controls the engine and reports any problems.
2 – Leila : Hi, it’s me. We’ve just had some fantastic news. My sister is going to have a baby. All the family’s really excited about it. She and her husband already have a daughter, so they hope it will be a boy.

3 – Mr.Fahmy : The school inspector is coming on Thursday. He’s arriving at ten o’clock. So your students must all bring in their books. I’ll give the inspector some tea in my office, and then we’ll visit the classrooms.

4 – Mrs.Zakariya : Don’t forget that Lucy and Paul are coming this evening. I expect they’ll stay for dinner. Oh, that’s them – I’ll get it.

5 – Mrs. El-Shazli : Look at the sky. It‘s really dark. I think it’s going to rain. Take your umbrella with you or you’ll get wet.
Cars without oil
 The problems of cars exhaust gases
Air pollution is a big problem for people and the environment. If you sit in traffic jam in Cairo, your lungs will fill with the exhaust fumes from cars, buses and Lorries. Air which is polluted by exhaust fumes can damage your health as well as the environment.
 Better engines and natural gas
Scientists are working on the problem of exhaust pollution. Now, all cars burn petrol more efficiently than in the past. Scientists have also designed engines which use natural gas, and many buses in Cairo and other cities use these engines.
 Electric cars
Engineers also designed electric cars that use batteries. The batteries in early electric cars could not as much fuel as petrol vehicles. This meant that they could not travel as far or as fast as petrol cars.

Now, however, engineers have designed cars which use both electricity and petrol. When the battery is empty the petrol engine takes over, And when the car uses petrol, this recharges the battery. These cars can go further, using the same amount of petrol as ordinary cars.
 The newest ideas
Scientists have also discovered that cars can run on vegetable oil, which mean, that farmers will be able to grow fuel in their fields. And now engineers are working on a new type of car battery which makes energy out of hydrogen and oxygen. Experts believe that we may be able to buy cars using these batteries in the next ten years.
 The end of oil
We know that at some time in the future ,there will be no oil in the world ,so we need to find replacement for petrol as soon as possible.
—————————————————————–
How to protect the environment …. ?
“To protect the environment, people should only drive their cars for four days a week. Everybody agree that cars and other vehicles are damaging our health and our world. To protect the environment. Different countries have different ways of stopping this damage. In some places, for example the price of petrol is very high. In other places, people have to pay to drive on some roads or in some cities. Now a speaker is suggesting that people should only be able to use their cars for four days a week instead of seven. In this composition, I am going to discuss some of the ideas for and against this suggestion.
—————————————————————–
 Definitions
1- traffic jam :إختناق المرور
– vehicles which are not moving or moving slowly.
2- navigation :الملاحة
– When you decide which direction to go in. OR which road to take while traveling.
3- inspector :مفتش
– Someone whose job is to check that something is highly standard.
4- environment :البيئة
– our natural surroundings.
5- vegetable oil : وقود ( نباتى – حيوى )
– oil is made from vegetables.

6- pollution :تلوث
– the process of polluting the water, air or land.
7- fumes : أبخرة عادم
– unpleasant gases or smoke which we breathe in.
8- airbag :وسادة هوائية
– a bag in a car that fills with air to protect people in an accident.
9- route :خط السير – طريق
– the way from one place to another.
10- battery :بطارية
– something that provides electrical power for a toy machine or car.
—————————————————————–
Vocabulary :

What is the difference between ….. ?
* special : خاص ( تستخدم مع ميزة أو صفة ) & general :عام ( تستخدم مع ميزة أو صفة )
* private : خاص ( تستخدم مع الملكية ) & public : عام ( تستخدم مع الملكية )
———————————————
* petrol :البنزين & oil = petroleum :البترول
———————————————
* blame + ( شخص ) + for + ( v + ing ) & ( Noun ) : يلوم شخص على
* blame + ( شئ ) + on :يلقى باللوم على شئ
———————————————
* electric cars :سيارات تدار بالكهرباء & petrol vehicles :مركبات تدار بالبنزين
———————————————
* electric (adj) :كهربائى ( لوصف الأجهزة )
* electrical (adj) :كهربائى ( لوصف الأعطال والعاملين بالكهرباء )
* electrician (n) :فنى كهرباء ( كهربائى ) & electricity (n) :كهرباء
———————————————
Prepositions

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

U7

UNI T 7

 Radio program on bird flu :

Presenter: Today’s programme is on a subject that is worrying many people: bird flu. We have an expert on bird flu in the studio today, .So let’s have our first question.
Caller 1: Hello my question is, can human catch bird flu?
Expert: The short answer to your question is “ yes” In fact, by 2007 more than 300 people had caught the disease. But only about half of these people died. But you shouldn’t worry – it is very unusual for humans to catch this disease. They have to be very near infected birds. It is extremely unusual for humans to catch bird flu from other humans.
Presenter : And now caller two, can we have your question?
Caller 2 : Good morning. I’d like to know where the recent outbreak of bird flu began.
Expert : Experts believe it started in 2003 in Asia. 100 million birds were killed to try to stop the disease, but by 2005 to 2006, there were new outbreaks in Africa, the Middle East and Europe.
Caller 2: And what’s happening now? Has the disease disappeared?
Expert : No, I’m afraid not. It’s still with us, but we believe it’s under control.
Presenter: Can we have our third question, please?
Caller 3: Hi. Can you tell me what kind of birds can catch bird flu?
Expert: That’s very easy: all kinds of wild birds as well as farm birds, like chickens. But other animals, like cats, can also catch it.
Presenter: We just have time for one more question. This is our last caller for today.
Caller 4: Hello. What should people do to protect themselves?
Expert: Well most people who catch bird flu live very near to birds which have the disease. If you have touched an infected bird, you must wash very well. If you think you may have the disease, you must see your doctor.
———————————————————

 How to avoid illness
Cleanliness is extremely important in protecting us from infections. Hygiene (your own cleanliness) and sanitation (public cleanliness) are both important.
Many infections of the stomach pass from one person to another because of bad sanitation and hygiene. If a child has dirty hands, they will be covered with millions of germs which we cannot see. If that child gives sweets to another child, some of those germs will be passed to the other child. When this child eats the sweet, he or she will eat some of the germs and may become ill. The child’s mother may say that it is because her child ate the sweet, but it is really because her child ate the other child’s germs.
These are some of the rules of hygiene. You should always wash your hands before a meal. You should bathe more often in hot weather or when you have been running or been to the gym.
You should also be very careful about the food you eat and the water you drink. Make sure that flies and other insects do not land on your food. Insects eat dirt and there are germs in dirt. If insects land on your food, they may pass their germs on to you. You must not leave pieces of food or dirty dishes lying around, because they will attract flies. You can protect food from flies and germs by covering it. You should always boil tap water before you drink it.
Finally, you must never eat food that smells bad because it may be poisonous. Do not eat food from a tin if the tin is damaged; the food will probably be bad.
———————————————————
 Our son’s hospital not clean, says family
A young patient is ill in hospital after a cut on his finger became infected. The boy’s family said that their son’s bed was not very clean. Doctors and nurses looking after the boy said they were very disappointed by the news. They promised to clean the hospital and equip it properly.
—————————————-

 Definitions
1- disease :مرض
– an illness or serious medical condition.
2- infected :مٌلوث
– having harmful bacteria.
3- outbreak :انتشار مرض – إنلاع حرب
– spreading of a disease or a war.
4- wildlife :الحياة البرية
– plants and animals which live or grow in natural conditions not looked after by people.
5- cleanliness :النظافة
– the state of being clean.
6- fly : ذبابة
– a common kind of insects.
7- flu : أنفلونزا
– a common disease like a bad cold but more serious.
8- poisonous = toxic :سام
– containing something that kills or makes you ill.
———————————————————————————
Vocabulary :

Note The Following

11- What happens if you eat food from a damaged tin ?
—-» You become ill because food from a damaged tin can be bad and poisonous.
12- How dangerous is out-of-date food ?
—-» Out-of-date food can be poisonous, so it can pass infection or illness to us.
13- What should parents teach their children ? Why ?
—-» Parents should teach their children the rules of hygiene and sanitation to protect them from infections.
14- What happens if a child is dirty ?
—-» A dirty child may become ill or pass infection to other children.
15- How should our hospitals be like ?
—-» Our hospitals should be well-equipped, clean and hygienic.
16- What other places that should be clean and hygienic ?
—-» Resautrants, schools, universities and all public places.
17- What would you say to a mother whose child is dirty ?
—-» Please, take care of your child. Keep him clean to protect him from infections.
————————————————————–

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

U8

UNI T 8

 William Shakespeare

A: Let’s do this Shakespeare quiz, shall we?
B: OK. What’s the first question?
A: When was Shakespeare born? Was it 1564, 1764 or 1964?
B: It was a long time ago. It must be 1564.
A: OK, the second question is this: How old was Shakespeare when he left school? Was it when he was 10, 12 or 14?
B: I think it was when he was 14.
A: I agree. He wouldn’t have been such a good writer if he’d left school when he was 10 or 12.
B: What’s the next question?
A: What was Shakespeare ‘s wife name? Was it Anne, Mary or Jane?
B: I think it was Mary, but I’m not sure.
A: I think it was Anne. And question four: Which of these is not a play by Shakespeare? Macbeth, Hamlet and Juliet, King Lear.
B: Definitely Hamlet and Juliet. It was Romeo and Juliet, wasn’t it?
A: Yes, of course. So here’s the last question: What was the name of the theatre in London where people could see Shakespeare s plays? Was it The Globe, The World or The Earth?
B: I have no idea.
A: I think it was The Globe but, I’m not sure.
—————————————————————————–
 The life of William Shakespeare :

Guide: Welcome to Stratford, where Shakespeare lived. I’d like to start by telling you something about Shakespeare’s life.

William Shakespeare was born on April 23. 1564. in Stratford in the Midlands of -England. His father was a glove maker. William went school when he was 7 but he had to leave at the age of 14 because his family had financial problems.

When he was 18, Shakespeare married a farmer’s daughter called Anne Heathway. William and Anne had three children. After that no one

is sure what Shakespeare did but, in 1592, he left his family and went to London to become an actor.
Then he started writing poems, and one of his longest poems “Venus and Adonis” was so successful that it made him famous. If he hadn’t found a patron at this time he wouldn’t have become a famous writer.
In 1594, Shakespeare was a well-known actor and writer who wrote and performed for a theatre group called King’s Men. Shakespeare had started writing in 1588 and for the next 17 years he wrote two plays a year. Many of these were performed at the Globe Theatre near to the River Thames in London. His five famous plays are probably Romeo and Juliet written in 1596. A Midsummer Night’s Dream in 1596 ….1601. King Lear in 1606 and Macbeth in ….Shakespeare part owned The Globe Theatre and made a lot of money from ……enough to buy a very large House in Stratford and he retired there, Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616.
—————————————————————————–
 King Lear
Lear is the King of Britain. When he is old, he decides to give his country to his three daughters, Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. But before he does this, he asks them to tell him how much they love him. Two of the daughters, Goneril and Regan, say they love him much more than they really do. The third daughter, Cordelia, does not say very much. She does not know how to describe her love for her father. Lear is angry with Cordelia, and gives all his money and land to Goneril and Regan. Cordelia is sent away and goes to live in France where she marries the king.
Obvious to him Goneril and Regan said that they loved ly so that they could have his money and country. The truth is that they do not love their father at all. Lear wanders around the country with his last two good friends they arrive in Dover.
Cordelia hears what has happened to her father. She comes to England with soldiers to try to save him and to take his country back from her two sisters. English soldiers arrive in Dover and beat the French. Cordelia and Lear are captured and taken to prison. Here, Cordelia tells her father how much she really loves him.
—————————————————————————–

 Definitions
1- actor :ممثل
– someone who performs in a play or film.
2- patron :الراعى
– some one who supports or gives money to an organization, artist , musical performer, etc.
3- perform : يؤدى ( دور )
– to do something to entertain people, especially in public.
4- theatre :مسرح
– a building with a stage where plays are performed.
5- retire :يتقاعد
– Stop working.
6- Obvious : واضح
– easy to understand.
7- Wander : يتجول
– walk with no where to go (aimlessly).
8- Beat :يهزم
– Win a fight against someone.
9- financial :مالى
– connected with money.
—————————————————————————–
Vocabulary :

What is the difference between …. ?
* wander :يتجول * wonder :يتساءل
—————————————————————————–
* patron :راعى ( منظمة – فنان – رياضى ) * breadwinner :عائل الأسرة
* sponsor :راعى ( لبرنامج اذاعى أو تليفزيونى )
—————————————————————————–
* quiz :امتحان موجز – مسابقة معلومات * exam :امتحان رسمى
—————————————————————————–
* win :يفوز بــ ( مباراة – جائزة – ميدالية – كأس – بطولة )
* gain :يكتسب ( شئ معنوى مثل : خبرة – معرفة – احترام – معلومات – ثقافة – وزن )
* earn :يكسب مالا * beat :يهزم
—————————————————————————–
* address (n) :عنوان * address (v) :يخاطب
—————————————————————————–
* capture (v) :يأسر * arrest (v) :يقبض على
—————————————————————————–
* dairy (n) :معمل ألبان * diary (n) :نوتة يدون فيها الشخص يومياته
—————————————————————————–
Prepositions

Question & Answer
1- Why does King Lear decide to give up his country ?
—-» Because he is old.
2- What does he want to know from his daughters ?
—-» He wants to know how much they love him.
3- What do Goneril and Regan tell their father ?
—-» They tell their father that they love him much more than they really do.
4- Why is Cordelia sent away to France ?
—-» Because she doesn’t know how to describe her love for her father.
5- What happens to Cordelia when the king sends her away to France ?
—-» She goes to live there where she marries the king.
6- What terrible mistake does King Lear make ?
—-» He gives his country and money to his two daughters Goneril and Regan who don’t really love him.
7- What is the truth about Goneril and Regan ?
—-» They don’t love their father at all.
8- Where does King Lear go ?
—-» He wanders around the country with his last two good friends until they arrive in Dover.
9- What does Cordelia come to England with French soldiers ?
—-» To try to save her father and take his country back from her two sisters.
10- What happens to Cordelia and her father ?
—-» English soldiers arrive in Dover and beat the French. Cordelia and Lear are captured and taken to prison.
11- When does Cordelia tell her father how much she really loves him ?
—-» When they are captured and taken to prison.
12- How do you think Cordelia feels when she hears what has happened to her father ?
—-» She feels very sad because she loves him.
13- How do you think Lear feels when Cordelia tries to help him ?
—-» He realizes that Cordelia loves him more than his other daughters do and that she is prepared to risk her life for him.
14- Who put Cordelia and Lear into prison ?
—-» The English soldiers who are working for Goneril and Regan.
15- How do you think Lear feels when he finds out how much Cordelia loves him?
—-» He feels ashamed, foolish, guilty and sorry.
16- Is there a turning point in the story ?
—-» Yes, Lear find out that he has made a mistake.
17- What qualities do people need to learn from their mistakes ?
—-» People need to be wise, not hasty and not to believe those who flatter them.

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

U 10 1ST Y

UNI T 8

 William Shakespeare

A: Let’s do this Shakespeare quiz, shall we?
B: OK. What’s the first question?
A: When was Shakespeare born? Was it 1564, 1764 or 1964?
B: It was a long time ago. It must be 1564.
A: OK, the second question is this: How old was Shakespeare when he left school? Was it when he was 10, 12 or 14?
B: I think it was when he was 14.
A: I agree. He wouldn’t have been such a good writer if he’d left school when he was 10 or 12.
B: What’s the next question?
A: What was Shakespeare ‘s wife name? Was it Anne, Mary or Jane?
B: I think it was Mary, but I’m not sure.
A: I think it was Anne. And question four: Which of these is not a play by Shakespeare? Macbeth, Hamlet and Juliet, King Lear.
B: Definitely Hamlet and Juliet. It was Romeo and Juliet, wasn’t it?
A: Yes, of course. So here’s the last question: What was the name of the theatre in London where people could see Shakespeare s plays? Was it The Globe, The World or The Earth?
B: I have no idea.
A: I think it was The Globe but, I’m not sure.
—————————————————————————–
 The life of William Shakespeare :

Guide: Welcome to Stratford, where Shakespeare lived. I’d like to start by telling you something about Shakespeare’s life.

William Shakespeare was born on April 23. 1564. in Stratford in the Midlands of -England. His father was a glove maker. William went school when he was 7 but he had to leave at the age of 14 because his family had financial problems.

When he was 18, Shakespeare married a farmer’s daughter called Anne Heathway. William and Anne had three children. After that no one

is sure what Shakespeare did but, in 1592, he left his family and went to London to become an actor.
Then he started writing poems, and one of his longest poems “Venus and Adonis” was so successful that it made him famous. If he hadn’t found a patron at this time he wouldn’t have become a famous writer.
In 1594, Shakespeare was a well-known actor and writer who wrote and performed for a theatre group called King’s Men. Shakespeare had started writing in 1588 and for the next 17 years he wrote two plays a year. Many of these were performed at the Globe Theatre near to the River Thames in London. His five famous plays are probably Romeo and Juliet written in 1596. A Midsummer Night’s Dream in 1596 ….1601. King Lear in 1606 and Macbeth in ….Shakespeare part owned The Globe Theatre and made a lot of money from ……enough to buy a very large House in Stratford and he retired there, Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616.
—————————————————————————–
 King Lear
Lear is the King of Britain. When he is old, he decides to give his country to his three daughters, Goneril, Regan and Cordelia. But before he does this, he asks them to tell him how much they love him. Two of the daughters, Goneril and Regan, say they love him much more than they really do. The third daughter, Cordelia, does not say very much. She does not know how to describe her love for her father. Lear is angry with Cordelia, and gives all his money and land to Goneril and Regan. Cordelia is sent away and goes to live in France where she marries the king.
Obvious to him Goneril and Regan said that they loved ly so that they could have his money and country. The truth is that they do not love their father at all. Lear wanders around the country with his last two good friends they arrive in Dover.
Cordelia hears what has happened to her father. She comes to England with soldiers to try to save him and to take his country back from her two sisters. English soldiers arrive in Dover and beat the French. Cordelia and Lear are captured and taken to prison. Here, Cordelia tells her father how much she really loves him.
—————————————————————————–

 Definitions
1- actor :ممثل
– someone who performs in a play or film.
2- patron :الراعى
– some one who supports or gives money to an organization, artist , musical performer, etc.
3- perform : يؤدى ( دور )
– to do something to entertain people, especially in public.
4- theatre :مسرح
– a building with a stage where plays are performed.
5- retire :يتقاعد
– Stop working.
6- Obvious : واضح
– easy to understand.
7- Wander : يتجول
– walk with no where to go (aimlessly).
8- Beat :يهزم
– Win a fight against someone.
9- financial :مالى
– connected with money.
—————————————————————————–
Vocabulary :

What is the difference between …. ?
* wander :يتجول * wonder :يتساءل
—————————————————————————–
* patron :راعى ( منظمة – فنان – رياضى ) * breadwinner :عائل الأسرة
* sponsor :راعى ( لبرنامج اذاعى أو تليفزيونى )
—————————————————————————–
* quiz :امتحان موجز – مسابقة معلومات * exam :امتحان رسمى
—————————————————————————–
* win :يفوز بــ ( مباراة – جائزة – ميدالية – كأس – بطولة )
* gain :يكتسب ( شئ معنوى مثل : خبرة – معرفة – احترام – معلومات – ثقافة – وزن )
* earn :يكسب مالا * beat :يهزم
—————————————————————————–
* address (n) :عنوان * address (v) :يخاطب
—————————————————————————–
* capture (v) :يأسر * arrest (v) :يقبض على
—————————————————————————–
* dairy (n) :معمل ألبان * diary (n) :نوتة يدون فيها الشخص يومياته
—————————————————————————–
Prepositions

Question & Answer
1- Why does King Lear decide to give up his country ?
—-» Because he is old.
2- What does he want to know from his daughters ?
—-» He wants to know how much they love him.
3- What do Goneril and Regan tell their father ?
—-» They tell their father that they love him much more than they really do.
4- Why is Cordelia sent away to France ?
—-» Because she doesn’t know how to describe her love for her father.
5- What happens to Cordelia when the king sends her away to France ?
—-» She goes to live there where she marries the king.
6- What terrible mistake does King Lear make ?
—-» He gives his country and money to his two daughters Goneril and Regan who don’t really love him.
7- What is the truth about Goneril and Regan ?
—-» They don’t love their father at all.
8- Where does King Lear go ?
—-» He wanders around the country with his last two good friends until they arrive in Dover.
9- What does Cordelia come to England with French soldiers ?
—-» To try to save her father and take his country back from her two sisters.
10- What happens to Cordelia and her father ?
—-» English soldiers arrive in Dover and beat the French. Cordelia and Lear are captured and taken to prison.
11- When does Cordelia tell her father how much she really loves him ?
—-» When they are captured and taken to prison.
12- How do you think Cordelia feels when she hears what has happened to her father ?
—-» She feels very sad because she loves him.
13- How do you think Lear feels when Cordelia tries to help him ?
—-» He realizes that Cordelia loves him more than his other daughters do and that she is prepared to risk her life for him.
14- Who put Cordelia and Lear into prison ?
—-» The English soldiers who are working for Goneril and Regan.
15- How do you think Lear feels when he finds out how much Cordelia loves him?
—-» He feels ashamed, foolish, guilty and sorry.
16- Is there a turning point in the story ?
—-» Yes, Lear find out that he has made a mistake.
17- What qualities do people need to learn from their mistakes ?
—-» People need to be wise, not hasty and not to believe those who flatter them.

Posted by: starjolt | February 24, 2009

1ST Y SEC U9

UNI T 9

Two Londoners and their
Egyptian friend Ali

Jane: I like living in London, but its also one of the most expensive cities in the world .and what do you get for all the money you have to spend? Everything costs so much. Prices are sky high, and the traffic is terrible. Public transport is expensive and slow .The undergrounds overcrowded and dirty. I’m ashamed to see foreign tourists on the underground.

Dan: Oh, come on, the traffic’s not as bad as it was before you had to pay to drive through the middle of London! And you should see Bangkok! It’s one big traffic jam. I agree that buses in London can be slow, but the underground’s quite fast. I like living in London. It’s a really safe city.

Ali: Yes, I agree with Dan. My wife and I are from Egypt. We’ve been living in London for three years and we really enjoy living here. I mean, three are so many historic buildings and wonderful places to visit: museums, theatres, beautiful shops and big parks. We like it so much. We’ve decided to stay for another year. Really, you should stop criticising London!

 Around the world in ten minutes

New York is the biggest city in the USA, but it is not the capital of the country. That is Washington. But, New York is one of the world’s most important business centers and a busy port. The statue of liberty, which is at the entrance of the harbour, is a symbol of freedom and welcomes visitors from other countries. New York has more skyscrapers than any other city in the world . There are 47 buildings taller than 200 meters and three taller than 300

meters! Two of the most famous ones are the Empire state Building and the Chrysler Building.

Paris is France’s capital and its largest city. Many people think it is the most beautiful city in the world. Every year, more than two million tourists visit Paris. The most popular place to visit is the Eiffel Tower, a tall metal structure which is the symbol of Paris.

Tokyo is the capital of Japan. About seven per cent of the population of the country live there, so it is very overcrowded. It is Japan’s main business center, and like New York, has skyscrapers and fast, wide roads. These are always filled with traffic, so Tokyo has some of the worst pollution in the world. Tokyo is the home of Japan’s emperor, whose palace stands in a beautiful park in the center of the city.

Cairo has the largest population of any city in Africa, and is the most important city in the Arab world .For more than a hundred years, Cairo has been an important centre for tourism, and Visitors from all over the world come to see buildings from the time of the Ancient Egyptians, especially the Pyramids.
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 Definitions
1- Public : عام – for everybody to use .
2- ashamed : خجلان – feeling bad about something.
3- Criticize : ينتقد – say bad things about.
4- foreign : أجنبى – not from your own country .
5- overcrowded : مكتظ .شديد الإزدحام – filled with too many people.
6- population : تعداد السكان
– the number of people living in an area, country, etc.
7- harbour : مرفأ
– an area of water next to the land where ships can stay safely.
8- structure : بناء . تركيب
– something that has been built.

9- emperor : إمبراطور – a kind of king.
10- a palace : قصر – house for a king or queen.
11- a skyscraper : ناطحة سحاب – a very tall building.
12- freedom : الحرية – the right to live your life the way you want to.
13- symbol : رمز
– a picture, object, etc., that is the sign of a particular idea or organization.
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Vocabulary :

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What is the difference between …. ?
* port (n) :ميناء ( لنقل البضائع وتفريغها )
* harbour (n) :ميناء ( تلجأ إليه السفن لحمايتها من الرياح و الأمواج )
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* ashamed of :خجلان من شئ * shy :خجول ( بطبعه )

* transport (n) :نقل ناس أو بضائع * transplant (n) :نقل أعضاء بشرية
* transfer (n) :تحويل نقود
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* follow (v) :يتبع * fellow (n) :رفيق – صديق
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* freedom (n) :الحرية ( فى الحياة بالطريقة التى تريدها )
* liberty (n) :الحرية ( تساوى الناس فى الحقوق السياسية والاجتماعية )
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* benefit (n) :فائدة * interest (n) :فائدة مالية ( على فلوس البنوك مثلا )
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* sample (n) :عينة * simple (adj) :بسيط
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* adopt (v) :يتبنى ( فكرة أو طفل ) * adapt (v) :يتأقلم مع
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* historic (adj) :تاريخى ( متعلق بالعصور القديمة )
Exs:
– historic meeting – historic sight
* historical (adj) :تاريخى ( متعلق بدراسة التاريخ )
Exs:
– historical paper – historical film.
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Prepositions

Questions & Answers
1- Which city is the capital of the United States ?
—-» It’s Washington.
2- What is the importance of New York ?
—-» It is one of the most important business centres in the world and a busy port.
3- What is special about New York ?
—-» It has the most skyscrapers in the world.
4- What is the Statue of Liberty a symbol of ?
—-» It is a symbol of freedom.
5- What do many people think of Paris ?
—-» They think it is the most beautiful city in the world.
6- How many tourists visit Paris every year ?
—-» Two million tourists visit Paris every year to see the Eiffel Tower.
7- Why is Tokyo overcrowded ?
—-» Because seven per cent of the population in Japan live in Tokyo.
8- Why is Tokyo important ?
—-» It is the capital of Japan and its main business centre.
9- Where does the emperor live in Japan ?
—-» He lives in a palace in a lovely park in Tokyo.
10- What makes a beautiful city ?
—-» Mosques, churches, public buildings, historic places, rivers, parks and museums make a beautiful city.
11- What kinds of places do tourists like to visit ?
—-» They like to visit the sights.
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Grammar
Verbs Followed By
( to + المصدر ) OR ( Gerund )

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